Saturday, October 11, 2008

Welcome to the World of Credit Cards

Do you have a credit card ?
Are you planing to buy a credit card ?
Do you know how it works, its History?
All information about Credit Cards will get from this webportal

Credit Card
A credit card is a system of payment named after the small plastic card issued to users of the system. A credit card is different from a debit card in that it does not remove money from the user's account after every transaction. In the case of credit cards, the issuer lends money to the consumer (or the user).

It is also different from a charge card (though this name is sometimes used by the public to describe credit cards), which requires the balance to be paid in full each month. In contrast, a credit card allows the consumer to 'revolve' their balance, at the cost of having interest charged. Most credit cards are the same shape and size, as specified by the ISO 7810 standard

Discover Credit Card

The credit card was the successor of a variety of merchant credit schemes. It was first used in the 1920s, in the United States, specifically to sell fuel to a growing number of automobile owners. In 1938 several companies started to accept each other's cards.

The concept of using a card for purchases was invented in 1887 by Edward Bellamy and described in his utopian novel Looking Backward.
The concept of paying merchants using a card was invented in 1950 by Ralph Schneider and Frank X. McNamara in order to consolidate multiple cards.

Bank of America created the BankAmericard in 1958, a product which eventually evolved into the Visa system ("Chargex" also became Visa). MasterCard came to being in 1966 when a group of credit-issuing banks established MasterCharge. The fractured nature of the US banking system meant that credit cards became an effective way for those who were traveling around the country to, in effect, move their credit to places where they could not directly use their banking facilities. In 1966 Barclaycard in the UK launched the first credit card outside of the US.

There are now countless variations on the basic concept of revolving credit for individuals (as issued by banks and honored by a network of financial institutions), including organization-branded credit cards, corporate-user credit cards, store cards and so on.

In contrast, although having reached very high adoption levels in the US, Canada and the UK, it is important to note that many cultures were much more cash-oriented in the latter half of the twentieth century, or had developed alternative forms of cash-less payments, like Carte blue, or the EC-card (Germany, France, Switzerland, among many others). In these places, the take-up of credit cards was initially much slower. It took until the 1990s to reach anything like the percentage market-penetration levels achieved in the US, Canada or UK. In many countries acceptance still remains poor as the use of a credit card system depends on the banking system being perceived as reliable.

In contrast, because of the legislative framework surrounding banking system overdrafts, some countries, France in particular, were much faster to develop and adopt chip-based credit cards which are now seen as major anti-fraud credit devices.

Bank Credit Card

A user is issued credit after an account has been approved by the credit provider, with which the user will be able to make purchases from merchants accepting that credit card up to a pre-established credit limit.

When a purchase is made, the credit card user agrees to pay the card issuer. The cardholder indicates their consent to pay, by signing a receipt with a record of the card details and indicating the amount to be paid or by entering a PIN. Also, many merchants now accept verbal authorizations via telephone and electronic authorization using the Internet, known as a Card not present (CNP) transaction.

Electronic verification systems allow merchants to verify that the card is valid and the credit card customer has sufficient credit to cover the purchase in a few seconds, allowing the verification to happen at time of purchase. The verification is performed using a credit card payment terminal or Point of Sale (POS) system with a communications link to the merchant's acquiring bank. Data from the card is obtained from a magnetic stripe or chip on the card; the latter system is in the United Kingdom commonly known as Chip and PIN, but is more technically an EMV card.

Other variations of verification systems are used by eCommerce merchants to determine if the user's account is valid and able to accept the charge. These will typically involve the cardholder providing additional information, such as the security code printed on the back of the card, or the address of the cardholder.

Each month, the credit card user is sent a statement indicating the purchases undertaken with the card, any outstanding fees, and the total amount owed. After receiving the statement, the cardholder may dispute any charges that he or she thinks are incorrect. Otherwise, the cardholder must pay a defined minimum proportion of the bill by a due date, or may choose to pay a higher amount up to the entire amount owed. The credit provider charges interest on the amount owed (typically at a much higher rate than most other forms of debt).

Credit card issuers usually waive interest charges if the balance is paid in full each month, but typically will charge full interest on the entire outstanding balance from the date of each purchase if the total balance is not paid.

Credit Card Services

As well as convenient, accessible credit, the cards offer consumers an easy way to track expenses, which is necessary for both monitoring personal expenditures and the tracking of work-related expenses for taxation and reimbursement purposes. Credit cards are accepted worldwide, and are available with a large variety of credit limits, repayment arrangement, and other perks (such as rewards schemes in which points earned by purchasing goods with the card can be redeemed for further goods and services or credit card cashback).

Some countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom and France limit the amount for which a consumer can be held liable due to fraudulent transactions as a result of a consumer's credit card being lost or stolen.

Credit Card Security

The low security of the credit card system presents countless opportunities for fraud. This opportunity has created a huge black market in stolen credit card numbers, which are generally used quickly before the cards are reported stolen.

The goal of the credit card companies is not to eliminate fraud, but to "reduce it to manageable levels", such that the total cost of both fraud and fraud prevention is minimized. This implies that high-cost low-return fraud prevention measures will not be used if their cost exceeds the potential gains from fraud reduction.

Most Internet fraud is done through the use of stolen credit card information which is obtained in many ways, the simplest being copying information from retailers, either online or offline. Despite efforts to improve security for remote purchases using credit cards, systems with security holes are usually the result of poor implementations of card acquisition by merchants. For example, a website that uses SSL to encrypt card numbers from a client may simply email the number from the webserver to someone who manually processes the card details at a card terminal. Naturally, anywhere card details become human-readable before being processed at the acquiring bank is a security risk. However, many banks offer systems such as ClearCommerce, where encrypted card details captured on a merchant's webserver can be sent directly to the payment processor.

Controlled Payment Numbers are another option for protecting one's credit card number: they are "alias" numbers linked to one's actual card number, generated as needed, valid for a relatively short time, with a very low limit, and typically only valid with a single merchant.

The way a credit card-owner pays off his/her balances has a tremendous effect on his/her credit history. All the information is collected by credit bureaus. The credit information stays on the credit report for 7 years except for bankruptcies, which remain for 10 years

Profits and Losses

In recent times, credit card portfolios have been very profitable for banks, largely due to the booming economy of the late nineties. However, in the case of credit cards, such high returns go hand in hand with risk, since the business is essentially one of making unsecured (uncollateralized) loans, and thus dependent on borrowers not to default in large numbers.

Minimum Payments

In the UK, there has recently been increasing concern about the minimum payments required on outstanding credit card balances. Until the mid-1990s the required minimum monthly payment was generally 5% of the outstanding balance, but competition in the last 15 years to attract customers has led to this figure being eroded on the premise that the minimum monthly payment to service a debt will be lower. Typically, credit card companies now only require a monthly minimum payment of between 2% and 3% of the outstanding balance, or a fixed cash fee, whichever is the greater. For example, on a debt of £1,000, the card holder can expect to pay back only £20 - £30 per month.

Unfortunately, some people are not aware of how long it can take to repay a debt when only paying the minimum each month. An example of this: by paying 2.5% of the debt each month, while accruing interest at 14% (in line with modern credit card interest rates), it can take over 14 years to pay back an original debt of £1,000, and roughly £10,500 will have been paid back.

It has recently been suggested that credit card companies include a warning on their statements discouraging customers from paying only the minimum, however few companies have so far acted upon this. Companies which do include a warning tend not to inform customers how long full repayment will take, i.e. they discourage users from making just minimum payments but do not explain why. Less financially savvy customers may ignore these empty warnings as a result.

Starting in 2006, most US credit card companies regulated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency have been required to increase customers' minimum payments to cover at least the interest and late fees from the prior statement plus 1% of the outstanding balance. The reason is to avoid a negative amortization situation which may result when the previous 3% minimum was enforced. Negative amortization is when the payment to the creditor fails to cover the amount of interest charged during that period. This causes the consumer's credit card balance to continually increase.

Trailing Interest

Trailing interest, sometimes called final or residual interest, is a method of calculation whereby interest is charged right up until the day of a full payment. Cardholders of banks that use this method receive a bill with the balance owing and interest accrued and pay it off in full. On the next statement they are billed a "final" amount of interest even if no purchases or cash advances have been debited since. The reason for this is that interest continues to accrue from the time of the close of the previous statement until the day the payment for that statement is actually received.

In comparison to the normal method of interest calculation, this method is judged by many to be a hidden and thus unfair cost. Uninformed cardholders often inquire as to what amount they need to pay by their due date in order to have paid off their credit card in full and to stop interest from accumulating. They then proceed to pay off this amount under the belief that they are finished paying interest charges, only to find trailing interest on their next statement which was posted to their account on the day of the statement billing (so even if they check their balance a day before that next billing date, it would still show a zero balance).

Hidden Costs

Merchants pay a negotiated fee -- typically 1-3% for larger merchants and 3-6% for smaller merchants -- to process credit payments. They must also bear the cost of providing a point-of-sale solution to enable the acceptance of card transactions and other card services related expenses. Credit card issuers understand full well that if card holders were aware of and made to pay these additional costs with their purchases it would tend to discourage credit card usage. As a consequence, businesses who accept credit cards often must sign a "merchant agreement" or contract with the acquirer that stipulates that they are not allowed to offer different prices for card and non-card transactions (sometimes referred to as surcharging) despite the additional costs to the business for accepting the cards. The prohibition on surcharging or cash discounts is enforced by law in some countries, although some governments are beginning to lift this restriction (see below).

Some critics have observed that this results in what is effectively a hidden tax on all transactions conducted by merchants who accept credit cards since they must build the cost of transaction fees into their overall business expense. Furthermore, cash and other non-credit card using customers are in effect made to subsidize credit card user purchases. The cost of the convenience and protections enjoyed by card holders and the profits taken from transaction fees by the card industry (which has come to rely increasingly on this revenue stream over the years) is in part borne by the non-card purchaser. Critics further note that the customers most likely to pay in cash are probably the least able to afford the additional expense, the argument going that card holders are more likely to be affluent and non-card holders less so.

A counterargument is that there are also costs to the merchant in other forms of payment. For cash payments these include frequent trips to the bank or use of an armored delivery service, theft, and employee error, such that cash is actually not cheaper for the merchant than credit cards

Credit Card Numbering

The numbers found on credit cards have a certain amount of internal structure, and share a common numbering scheme.

The card number's prefix, called the Bank Identification Number, is the sequence of digits at the beginning of the number that determine the bank to which a credit card number belongs. This is the first six digits for Mastercard and Visa cards. The next nine digits are the individual account number, and the final digit is a validity check code.

In addition to the main credit card number, credit cards also carry issue and expiration dates (given to the nearest month), as well as extra codes such as issue numbers and security codes. Not all credit cards have the same sets of extra codes nor do they use the same number of digits.

Credit Cards in ATMs

Many credit cards can also be used in an ATM to withdraw money against the credit limit extended to the card but many card issuers charge interest on cash advances before they do so on purchases. The interest on cash advances is commonly charged from the date the withdrawal is made, rather than the monthly billing date. Many card issuers levy a commission for cash withdrawals, even if the ATM belongs to the same bank as the card issuer. Merchants do not offer cashback on credit card transactions because they would pay a percentage commission of the additional cash amount to their bank or merchant services provider, thereby making it uneconomical.

Many credit card companies will also, when applying payments to a card, do so at the end of a billing cycle, and apply those payments to everything before cash advances. For this reason, many consumers have large cash balances, which have no grace period and incur interest at a rate that is (usually) higher than the purchase rate, and will carry those balance for years, even if they pay off their statement balance each month.

Credit Cards as Funding for Entrepreneurs

Credit cards are a creative, yet often risky way for entrepreneurs to acquire capital for their start ups when more conventional financing is unavailable. It is rumoured that Larry Page and Sergey Brin's start up of Google was financed by credit cards to buy the necessary computers and office equipment, more specifically "a terabyte of memory". [5] Similarly, filmmaker Robert Townsend financed part of Hollywood Shuffle using credit cards.[6] Director Kevin Smith funded Clerks. in part by maxing out several credit cards. Richard Hatch also financed his production of Battlestar Galactica: The Second Coming partly through his credit cards. Famed hedge fund manager Bruce Kovner began his career (and, later on, his firm Caxton Associates) in financial markets by borrowing from his credit card

Monday, October 6, 2008



These subfields seek to anticipate what inventions nanotechnology might yield, or attempt to propose an agenda along which inquiry might progress. These often take a big-picture view of nanotechnology, with more emphasis on its societal implications than the details of how such inventions could actually be created.

* Molecular nanotechnology is a proposed approach which involves manipulating single molecules in finely controlled, deterministic ways. This is more theoretical than the other subfields and is beyond current capabilities.

* Nanorobotics centers on self-sufficient machines of some functionality operating at the nanoscale. There are hopes for applying nanorobots in medicine, but it may not be easy to do such a thing because of several drawbacks of such devices.Nevertheless, progress on innovative materials and methodologies has been demonstrated with some patents granted about new nanomanufacturing devices for future commercial applications, which also progressively helps in the development towards nanorobots with the use of embedded nanobioelectronics concept.

* Programmable matter based on artificial atoms seeks to design materials whose properties can be easily, reversibly and externally controlled.

* Due to the popularity and media exposure of the term nanotechnology, the words picotechnology and femtotechnology have been coined in analogy to it, although these are only used rarely and informally.

Top-down approaches

These seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly.

* Many technologies descended from conventional solid-state silicon methods for fabricating microprocessors are now capable of creating features smaller than 100 nm, falling under the definition of nanotechnology. Giant magnetoresistance-based hard drives already on the market fit this description,[10] as do atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques. Peter Grünberg and Albert Fert received the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of Giant magnetoresistance and contributions to the field of spintronics in 2007.

* Solid-state techniques can also be used to create devices known as nanoelectromechanical systems or NEMS, which are related to microelectromechanical systems or MEMS.

* Atomic force microscope tips can be used as a nanoscale "write head" to deposit a chemical upon a surface in a desired pattern in a process called dip pen nanolithography. This fits into the larger subfield of nanolithography.

Functional approaches

Bottom-up approaches

These seek to arrange smaller components into more complex assemblies.

* DNA nanotechnology utilizes the specificity of Watson-Crick basepairing to construct well-defined structures out of DNA and other nucleic acids.

* Approaches from the field of "classical" chemical synthesis also aim at designing molecules with well-defined shape

* More generally, molecular self-assembly seeks to use concepts of supramolecular chemistry, and molecular recognition in particular, to cause single-molecule components to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation.


This includes subfields which develop or study materials having unique properties arising from their nanoscale dimensions.

* Interface and Colloid Science has given rise to many materials which may be useful in nanotechnology, such as carbon nanotubes and other fullerenes, and various nanoparticles and nanorods.
* Nanoscale materials can also be used for bulk applications; most present commercial applications of nanotechnology are of this flavor.
* Progress has been made in using these materials for medical applications;

Foreign purchases of real estate in Turkey

Purchasing property in Turkey is becoming increasingly popular with holiday home owners and investors around the globe. Several factors are contributing to the popularity and the trend displayed by foreign purchases of property also had important repercussions within Turkey. The issue is especially notable given Turkey's potential EU membership and the related economic integration processes.[1] In 2003, property purchases were opened up to foreign nationals with restrictions on the provinces. When these restrictions were violated in 2005, the law was annulled by Turkish courts; Despite this property purchases continue. As of 2008, 63,085 individual properties have been sold to over 73,103 different foreigners. This amounts to 38,623,661 square metres (415,741,630 sq ft) of land, and US$10.4 billion of foreign investment, mostly by German, British and Greek citizens

Foreign purchases of real estate in Turkey

Purchasing property in Turkey is becoming increasingly popular with holiday home owners and investors around the globe. Several factors are contributing to the popularity and the trend displayed by foreign purchases of property also had important repercussions within Turkey. The issue is especially notable given Turkey's potential EU membership and the related economic integration processes.[1] In 2003, property purchases were opened up to foreign nationals with restrictions on the provinces. When these restrictions were violated in 2005, the law was annulled by Turkish courts; Despite this property purchases continue. As of 2008, 63,085 individual properties have been sold to over 73,103 different foreigners. This amounts to 38,623,661 square metres (415,741,630 sq ft) of land, and US$10.4 billion of foreign investment, mostly by German, British and Greek citizens

Land ownership in Turkey

One particularity of overall landownership profile in Turkey is the high proportion of land owned by the state, either directly, under the authority of the Undersecretariat of Treasury (Hazine in daily language), or indirectly through the inheritance and management of Ottoman foundations (vakıf), under the authority of the General Directorate for Foundations. Vakıf (Foundation) lands is the real estate legated by their original proprietors, often centuries ago, for the purpose of the upkeep of a public building, a community service, a particular person or a group of persons. Foundations also constitute part of the assets held by Vakıfbank, a bank originally founded with the purpose of putting the foundations in value for the economy of Turkey and named in reference to them. Hazine (Treasury) lands are those, often covering vast areas in rural Turkey, for which no private ownership is recorded at any time, imperial legacies that did not fall within the scope of foundations, or land that passed over to state ownership through many possible reasons.
Therefore, unlike many other European countries where most of the land area is privately owned, much of the land in Turkey is still held by the state. One aspect of this situation is the simplification of procedures in the case of public works or investments that are envisaged where, instead of costly expropriations, correspondence between ministries is often sufficient to make suitable land easily available for projected works. Another is the constantly re-surging plans by various governments to make one or other particular part or type of state land available for private sector use and development. These issues of land-grant become particularly sensitive when the land in question is important for fauna or flora in environmental terms, for irrigation, for any other public use, or when conflicts of interest arise or private interests influencing government plans are detected by the opposition groups. Notwithstanding occasionally heated debates on the matter, by complying with basic public relations principles, vast parcels of land do become available to investors in Turkey through the consent of governments pursuing encouraging policies to the effect.

Historical Background

The issue of foreign purchases of real estate is associated with very bitter reminiscences in Turkey. During the weakening phase of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century and the global dominance of western colonialism, purchases without constraint and effective surveillance of real estate by the nationals and companies of western powers was one of the issues on which the Ottoman state had been subjected to the direst foreign pressures. As a consequence of these pressures, a 1858 firman on "Reform" had announced a grant of permission in this respect, but the necessary legal arrangements had been delayed till 1868. With the enactment of the 1868 regulation, according to one estimate, British capitalist-farmers (see Levantine mansions of İzmir) had almost immediately emerged as having acquired one third of all arable lands in the entire vilayet of İzmir (Aydın in name), possibly held in an indirect manner till then, and by 1878, the majority of the arable land in the same province. This trend coincided with the influx of refugees from lands lost for the Ottoman Empire, and the migrants often saw themselves having to buy property from foreigners in their own country.[3] A further law in 1913 also allowed foreign legal entities (companies, foundations etc.) to purchase property in Ottoman lands, with decisive effects for the early foundations of the state of Israel. A partial face-about by the Committee of Union and Progress, simultaneous to the outbreak of the World War I in Europe, was one of the causes for the deterioration of relations between Turkey and the Allied powers Britain, France and Italy. The Treaty of Lausanne which established modern Turkey laid a ground based on a strict understanding of reciprocity in the matter, on a bilateral and contractual bases as concluded with individual countries at first, and full legal reciprocity after 1934

[edit] Legal Framework and the Recent Changes

The principles governing purchase of property by foreign (i.e. non-Turkish) nationals in Turkey is governed by the 1934 Property Act (Law Nr. 2644 dated 22 November 1934). The legal framework set up in 1934 was modified for a first time by a by-law (Law Nr. 4916) dated 3 July 2003. This law was predicated on a reciprocity clause; that is to say, citizens of countries whose governments allow Turkish nationals to purchase real estate in their country, were to be allowed to purchase real estate in Turkey.
However, following steps taken by Turkey's main opposition party CHP, the modifications brought by the 2003 by-law were declared as void by the Turkish Constitutional Court on 26 April 2005, in a decision to enter into effect as of 27 July 2005 and the purchase of real estate by foreign nationals was suspended until a modified law dated 7 January 2006 was brought into effect. This law, Law Nr. 5444, now enacted, instead of being a by-law modifying various paragraphs of the 1934 Property Act, is a fully stated legal text (still on the basis of a modification of the 1934 Act). (the full text in Turkish). This current law is retrospective in its application to 26 July 2005 and is largely the same as the law of 3 July 2003, with the following notable amendments, especially with regards to size limitations:
A foreign national cannot purchase more than 25,000m² (6 acres) of land (constructed or not) in Turkey without special consent from the Turkish Council of Ministers. The council of Ministers is authorised to increase this limit up to 300,000m2 per person.
Foreign national ownership of real estate cannot exceed 5/1000 of land in any designated province.
The property also has to be within a municipality. Foreigners can not buy in villages.
As for the handling of the transactions suspended since July 2005, the new law is also applicable for applications of Title Deeds in the period between the former law becoming void and the current law coming into effect.
For the moment, all overseas nationals are subject to a clearance by the Turkish military authorities before being allowed to proceed with any purchase. This is to establish that the land/property is not in a militarily sensitive area, and that the individual is considered as suitable to own real estate in Turkey. Designation of land suitable for overseas purchasers is expected to be determined at a later stage by Land Registry Offices, based on information supplied by the military.
The Council of Ministers is also expected to determine, in the three months following the promulgation of the law, those areas where reserves on purchase due to considerations stemming from irrigation, energy, agriculture, mining, history, religion and culture issues and for preservation of natural flora and fauna are put in effect. Property acquired through inheritance is not subject to the limitations and reserves stated above.
From January 2008, foreign investors will be able to apply for a mortgage within Turkey. The revision in existing laws, aims to encourage foreign investment, replacing the previous barrier whereby investors had to finance their Turkish real estate through cash purchases or mortgages arranged within their native country.

Foreign Ownership Market Trends to 2005

Taken as a whole, during the 69-year period starting in 1934 with the enactment of the Property Law until the first modifications of July 2003, 37342 parcels of property had been acquired by non-Turkish legal entities (companies) or private individuals in Turkey. It is to be noted that 2400 of these were Syrian nationals, who themselves had remained as such but whose properties had become part of the territory of Turkey with the adhesion of the Republic of Hatay to Turkey in 1939, the whole transitional proceedings that took place having been counted, for the purposes of statistics, as re-acquisitions by these Syrians.
The 2-year duration of the validity of the old law (July 2003-July 2005) gave some interesting insights on foreign national property buying trends in Turkey both for property market players and for official bodies.
During the two years for which the July 2003 modification had remained valid, 15842 parcels of property (2931 among these being unbuilt land lots) have been acquired by non-Turkish legal or private persons in Turkey. The purchasers constituted a total of 18959 legal or private owners or co-owners from a total of 58 different countries. In the forefront came British nationals (8625 persons acquiring 6333 parcels), who were followed by Germans (3482 persons for 3210 parcels), with Dutch nationals, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Irish nationals, Swedes and Belgians respectively occupying the next places. (Reuters İstanbul - in Turkish)
It was also observed that, during this 2-year period, the districts most favoured by foreign buyers were Alanya, Fethiye, Didim, Bodrum, Kuşadası along the coastline, as well as Ürgüp in Cappadocia. Alanya is a particularly preferred location for Germans and Scandinavians, while the British purchases are at their highest level of concentration in Fethiye and Didim Reuters İstanbul - in Turkish. Some of these towns have come to include sizable proportions of seasonal or full-time inhabitants made up of foreign homeowners. These homeowners already display a marked tendency to set up associations among themselves to promote their specific areas of interests such as the translation of key texts into their respective languages, contacts with officials, cultural and religious activities such as church-building and to provide guidance to newer purchasers (see Expat community web portal in Turkeyor an alternative but comprehensive resource)
One of the fundamental keys to Turkey's successful transition to full EU membership is its ability to attract and retain Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). It has set itself a target of attracting 1.2 trillion dollars from Gulf States initially[citation needed] and therefore the Crown Prince of Dubai's immediate financial commitment to the country's real estate sector not only gave property investors faith in Turkey it gave other nations faith in the country as a whole and should lead to the further promotion of Turkey and an increasing flow of FDI.

Points of Controversy in Turkey on Foreign Home Ownership

The foreign purchase of real estate is a widely discussed subject in the Turkish media and among the public. Some of the opinions put forth in this context may not be based on sound facts, while others are results of in-depth studies.[6] Opponents of liberalisation and internationalisation of the real estate market in Turkey also made allusions based on interpretations of evolutions in Spain and Israel.
Another issue which will inevitably arise is the concern over the specific case of Greek nationals. Despite EU pressures, a national land registry system in full legal clarity is yet to be fully established in Greece (except in the Dodecanese, where the system was set up during the Italian rule between 1912-1945). Thus, a legal move questioning whether there could be reciprocity with a country without a land registry system was indeed launched under the auspices of opposition CHP party, before the application covering the new law in general was made to the Constitutional Court and set the agenda. The issue will almost certainly not be dismissed easily by proponents of a liberal property market. In addition, there are also occasional reports of a more sensational nature, usually specific to some sections of the media. These relate to Israeli or Arab investors buying land en masse in the prospering Southeastern Anatolia Project region, politically-minded purchases in the Black Sea region or in Eastern Anatolia, where sizable communities of Pontic Greeks or Armenians previously lived.
The challenge for the Turkish government will be to negotiate a path which satisfies the sceptical elements within Turkish politics and among the public, while at the same time appeasing liberals and satisfying the open-market criteria which the E.U. expects from Turkey as it moves towards accession.
On a more specific and strictly professional focus, the ongoing efforts by Turkey's real estate agents to demarcate the definition and the boundaries of their profession and to discourage occasional and non-professional intermediaries away should also be mentioned. The compulsory norms to be respected in order to exercise the profession are still rather recent (since 2004). Real estate agents are required to be members to and exhibit their membership of the association set up for their region (such as Kusemder for Kuşadası, or Maremder for Marmaris). These local associations are gathered within the framework of the national federation, Temfed, which provides a full list of the regional associations.

Foreign Ownership Market Data under the new legislation

After the annulment of the 2003 Law in July 2005, during the 6-month period of legal uncertainty, the market (focused on foreign buyers) understandably came to a standstill. However, local Land Registry Offices continued to process applications in anticipation of the new law. 2006 and 2007 data indicates that the market took off to a clear and vivid boost.
Information on overseas buyers provided by the First Economic Counsellor of the Turkish Embassy in London for 2006 was as follows:
Britons were the first in buying property in Turkey among foreign nationals in the first quarter of the year according to the latest data released by the Land Registry Office. From 7 January 2006 when the new law was put into effect, to mid-April 2006, 588 British Citizens purchased 420 properties in Turkey. Secondly 265 Germans bought 258 properties in Turkey. In the same period, total property sale to foreigners and total foreigners bought property in Turkey reached 1,206 and 1,565 respectively. (25 April 2006)"
The newspaper Cumhuriyet reported on 11 June 2006 that, since the 5/1000 limit was exceeded in Hatay Province, sales to foreign nationals of real estate located in that province was suspended until further notice. The congestion is a consequence of 1300 parcels of property that have been bought in recent times by foreign nationals adding up on the 2400 land lots owned by Syrians, some of them quite large. The particular case of Hatay put apart, as of 1 June 2006, Antalya Province was in the lead in the number of foreign purchases of real estate in Turkey with 5566 lots sold, provinces of Aydın (3998), Muğla (3035), İstanbul (1463) and İzmir (722) occupying the following places.
The most recent data provided by the Ministry, covering the period from 2002 (when the incumbent government came into office) to 2008 indicates a total of 63,085 land lots sold to 73,103 foreign private persons, extending to a total area of 25,350,361 square meters. As such, a total of seventy four seventy five thousand foreign nationals own an area of 38,623,661 square metres (415,741,630 sq ft) of lands in Turkey.[2] As of 2007, on area basis the provinces of Muğla (4,445,259 meter squares), Antalya (3,810,118 meter squares), Aydın (3,001,075 meter squares) came in the lead. On the basis of the number of foreign nationals acquiring property, the situation was as follows: Antalya (26,031 foreign nationals), Muğla (12,865 foreign nationals), İstanbul (8,830 foreign nationals), Aydın (7,415 foreign nationals), Bursa (5,241 foreign nationals), İzmir (4,145 foreign nationals). German nationals came the first in Antalya Province and British citizens in Muğla and Aydın Provinces. Purchases by Greek nationals displayed a striking preeminence in İstanbul and, in a more recent trend, in Bursa.

Saturday, October 4, 2008

Network+ Skills

ISDN Network and Applications Technology, 3rd Edition

Tally 9.2

Macromedia Flash 8 Pro

Folder Lock 5.9.0 Full

Folder Lock is a fast file-security program that can password-protect, lock, hide and encrypt any number of files, folders, drives, pictures and documents in seconds. Protected files are hidden, undeletable, inaccessible and highly secure. It hides files from kids, friends and co-workers, safeguards them from viruses, trojans, worms and spyware, and even protects them from networked PCs, cable users and hackers. Files can also be protected on USB Flash Drives, Memory Sticks, CD-RW, floppies and notebooks.

Start Ur Pc in 10 sec

Run -->Type Regedit -->ok
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find the Key--> Startup Delay Double Click On It -->Click Decimal
Default Value Is 4800000 or 75300 hexadecimal --> Change The Value To 40000
Close the Registery Editor and Restart Your Computer

Shutdown system using command line

Start --> Run -->Typeshutdown /s
It dispalys a countdown time of 30 secs to one min.

shutdown /s /f -->forcefully shutdown system
shutdown /s /f /t xx to shut down the system forcefully in XX secs
XX--> 00,01......

To abort shutdown --> shutdown /a
To restart system --> shutdown /r
To hibernate --> shutdown /h
To log off --> shutdown /l

Shortcut keys to access make easy for ur gmail account

keyboard shortcuts:
C: Compose new message.
Shift + C: Open new window to compose new message.
Slash (/): Switch focus to search box.
K: Switch focus to the next most recent email.
Enter or "O" opens focused email.
J: Switch focus to the next oldest email.
N: Switch focus to the next message in the "conversation .
P: Switch focus to the previous message.
U: Takes you back to the inbox and checks for new mail.
Y: Various actions depending on current view:Has no effect in "Sent" and "All Mail" views.
R: Reply to the email.
A: Reply to all recipients of the email.
F: Forward an email.
Shift + R: Reply to the email in a new window.
Shift + A: Reply to all recipients of the email in a new window.
Shift + F: Forward an email in a new window.
Shift + 1 (!): Mark an email as spam and remove it from the inbox.
G then I: Switch to "Inbox" view.
G then S: Switch to "Starred" view.
G then A: Switch to "All Mail" view.
G then C: Switch to "Contacts" view.
G then S: Switch to "Drafts" view.

Make prank virus

In notepad
1->@echo off
goto 1
2->save it ___.bat

Create invisible folder

1->create folder
2->rename it->ALT+0160
3->change folder icon (select image less icon)

Create a Invisible Folder in Windows XP

1. Make a Folder in C drive rename it as 111.
2. Now open Command Prompt from Start Menu.
3. Type attrib +s +h C:\111 and press enter.
4. This command will Make your folder invisble and it can not be seen even in hidden files and folders
5. To make it visible again type attrib -s -h C:\111
6. You can lock any other folder also by changing the location C:\111 to address of your folder

Common Control Panel Applets

To run these applets-->Create a Desktop Shortcut
To create a desktop shortcut:
1. Right click a blank area of your desktop
2. Select New>> Shortcut
3. Type the Applet of choice in the text box (eg: desk.cpl) Click Next.
4.Type the name of your new icon (eg: Display Properties) Click Finish.

Control Panel Applets
access.cpl -Accessibility Options
appwiz.cpl -Add/Remove Programs
desk.cpl -Display Properties
firewall.cpl-Firewall Settings
hdwwiz.cpl-Add New Hardware Wizard
inetcpl.cpl-Internet Options
intl.cpl-Regional settings
joy.cpl-Joystick Properties
main.cpl-Mouse Properties
main.cpl-keyboard Keyboard Properties
mmsys.cpl-sounds Sound Properties
ncpa.cpl-Network Connections
ncpl.cpl-Network Properties
nusrmgr.cpl-User settings
password.cpl-Password Properties
powercfg.cpl-Power Management
sticpl.cpl-Scanners and Cameras
sysdm.cpl-System Properties
telephon.cpl-Phone and Modem options
timedate.cpl-Date and Time Properties
wscui.cpl-Security Center
wuaucpl.cpl-Automatic Updates Configuration

Disable Error Reporting

1. Open Control Panel
2. Click on Performance and Maintenance.
3. Click on System.
4. Then click on the Advanced tab
5. Click on the error-reporting button on the bottom of the windows.
6. Select Disable error reporting.
7. Click OK
8. Click OK

Remove Recycle Bin From Desktop

Go To-->Run Regedit --> ok
Click on the "Recycle Bin" string in the right hand pane. Hit Del, click OK.

RAM Cleaner In Notepad

Type :
Save it as ramcleaner.vbs
Run it whenever your pc became slow.
If you have a bigger RAM, you can change value from 6400000 to more

Shutdown PC with timer

1. Right click on your desktop and choose "New=>shortcuts".
2. In the box that says "Type the location of the shortcut",type in "shutdown -s -t 3600" without the quotation marks and click next.
Note: 3600 are the amount of seconds before your computer shuts down. So , 60secs*60mins=3600secs.
3. Make up a name for the shortcut and you're done.You can change the icon by right clicking=>properities=>change icon=>browse

To make an abort key to stop the shutdown timer just create another shortcut and makethe "location of the shortcut" to " shutdown -a" without the quotes.

Concurrent Remote Desktop Sessions in Windows XP

1. Download the file below and extract it somewhere. (You have to be registered to see the file)
2. Reboot into Safe Mode. This is necessary to remove Windows File Protection.
3. Copy the termserv.dll in the zip to %windir%\System32 and %windir%\ServicePackFiles\i386. If the second folder doesn't exist, don't copy it there. Delete termserv.dll from the dllcache folder: %windir%\system32\dllcache.
4. Merge the contents of Concurrent Sessions SP2.reg file into the registry.
5. Make sure Fast User Switching is turned on. Go Control Panel -> User Accounts -> Change the way users log on or off and turn on Fast User Switching.
6. Open up the Group Policy Editor: Start Menu > Run > 'gpedit.msc'. Navigate to Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Windows Components > Terminal Services. Enable 'Limit Number of Connections' and set the number of connections to 3 (or more). This enables you to have more than one person remotely logged on.
7. Now reboot back into normal Windows and try out whether Concurrent Sessions in Remote Desktop works. It should!
If anything goes wrong, the termserv_sp2.dll is the original file you replaced. Just rename it to termserv.dll, reboot into safe mode and copy it back.
The termserv.dl_ file is provided in the zip is for you slipstreamers out there. Just replace that file with the corresponding file in the Windows installation disks

Shortcuts using Windows key

(1) Windows Key + d —> Desktop (A good function that can make your desktop appear
by minimizing all the open windows)
(2) Windows key + e —> Opens My Computer (To check your storage devices etc.)
(3) Windows key + f —> Opens Search window (To search files and folders)
(4) Windows key + l —> Lock your computer or switch between users (Use it if you
are going away for sometime or want other user to use the PC)
(5) Windows key + m —> Minimizes all the open windows and brings desktop
(6) Windows key + r —> Run a command from the Run dialog box
(7) Windows Key, u –> Shutdown
(8) Windows key, h –> Help and Support
(9) Windows key, c –> Reaching Search menu or other programs starting with C in
the Start menu (example Creative Mediasource Go)
(10) Windows key, s –> Reaching Settings menu
(11) Windows key, d –> Reaching Documents menu or programs starting with D in the Start menu
ALT- F4 - Quit a program / Shut down
ALT-TAB - Hold down the ALT key and hit tab to cycle through open windows.
CTL-ESCAPE - Display the Start menu
SHIFT - TAB - tab backwards through a form
CTRL - X - Cut
CTRL - C - Copy
CTRL - V - PasteF1 - Help menu
CTRL - Z - Undo
SHIFT & Restart - To restart just windows and not your whole computer, hold down the shift key when you click the OK button on the shutdown screen. Saves lots of time. (Not for XP)CRTL-TAB - Navigate tabs on a tabbed screen
Hold SHIFT while inserting a CD - Prevents the CD from "autorunning"
If an item is selected:
CTRL while dragging a file - Copies the file
CTRL - SHIFT while dragging a file - Creates a shortcut to the file
SHIFT - DELETE - Deletes an item without sending it to the recycle bin.
ALT-ENTER - Display a file's properties.
F2 - To rename the file
In Windows Explorer:
LEFT ARROW - Collapse the current selection if it is expanded
NUM LOCK-MINUS SIGN (-) - Collapse the selected folder
RIGHT ARROW - Expand the current selection if it is collapsed -Or- Select the first subfolder
NUM LOCK- * Expand all folders below the current selection
NUM LOCK- PLUS SIGN (+) - Expand the selected folder
F6 - Switch between left and right panes
In My Computer:
BACKSPACE - View the folder one level up
ALT- RIGHT ARROW - Move forward to a previous view
ALT- LEFT ARROW -Move backward to a previous view
For Internet Explorer 6 and Netscape 7 (may work in older versions)
Open History Window – Ctrl+H
Reload - Ctrl+RBack (previous page) – Alt+Left or Alt+Backspace
Forward (Next page) – Alt+Right Arrow
Stop – Esc
Home - Alt+Home
Go to Bottom of Page – End
Go to Top of Page – Home
New Window - Ctrl+N
Close Window- Ctrl+W
Go Up one Line - Up Arrow
Go Down One Line - Down Arrow
Full Screen (toggle) - F11
Find on Page - Ctrl+F
Add Current Page to Favorites - Ctrl+D
Print Current Page or Active Frame - Ctrl+P
Organize Favorites (IE)/ Manage Bookmarks (NS) - Ctrl+B
Maximize a Window - Alt+Space+x
Minimize a window­­- Alt+Space+N
Scroll page up - Alt+Up Arrow
Scroll page down - Alt+Down Arrow
Internet Explorer ONLY
Open Favorites Bar - Ctrl+I
Select text in address bar - Alt+D
A faster way to type in addresses with IE is to just type in the name of the site:
Worldstartand hit CTRL + Enter. The "http://www/ . " and ".com" will be added for you!
Start + M: Minimizes all open windows
Start + Shift + M: Maximizes All Windows
Start + E: Runs Windows Explorer
Start + R: Open the RUN Dialog Box
Start + F: Open the Search Results Dialog box
Start + CTRL + F: Opens the Search Results-Computer dialog Box (if the computer is connected to a network)
Start + Pause (Break): Opens the System Properties Dialog Box
Windows System Key Combinations:
F1: Help
CTRL + ESC: Open Start menu
ALT + TAB: Switch between open programs
ALT + F4: Quit program
CTRL + Z: Undo
CTRL + B: Bold
CTRL + U: Underline
CTRL + I: Italic
Mouse Click/Keyboard Modifier Combinations for Shell Objects:
SHIFT + right click: Displays a shortcut menu containing alternative commands
SHIFT + double click: Runs the alternate default command (the second item on the menu)
ALT + double click: Displays properties
General Folder/Shortcut Control:
F4: Selects the Go To A Different Folder box and moves down the entries in the box (if the toolbar is active in Windows Explorer)
F5: Refreshes the current window.
F6: Moves among panes in Windows Explorer
CTRL + G: Opens the Go To Folder tool (in Windows 95 Windows Explorer only)
CTRL + A: Select all the items in the current window
BACKSPACE: Switch to the parent folder
SHIFT + click + Close button: For folders, close the current folder plus all parent folders
Windows Explorer Tree Control:
Numeric Keypad *: Expands everything under the current selection
Numeric Keypad +: Expands the current selection
Numeric Keypad -: Collapses the current selection.
RIGHT ARROW: Expands the current selection if it is not expanded, otherwise goes to the first child
LEFT ARROW: Collapses the current selection if it is expanded, otherwise goes to the parent
Properties Control:
CTRL + TAB/CTRL + SHIFT + TAB: Move through the property tabs
Accessibility Shortcuts:
Press SHIFT five times: Toggles Sticky Keys on and off
Press down and hold the right SHIFT key for eight seconds: Toggles FilterKeys on and off
Press down and hold the NUM LOCK key for five seconds: Toggles ToggleKeys on and off
Left ALT + left SHIFT+NUM LOCK: Toggles MouseKeys on and off
Left ALT + left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN: Toggles high contrast on and off
Microsoft Natural Keyboard Keys:
Windows Logo: Start menu
Windows Logo + R: Run dialog box
Windows Logo + M: Minimize all
SHIFT + Windows Logo+M: Undo minimize all
Windows Logo + F1: Help
Windows Logo + E: Windows Explorer
Windows Logo + F: Find files or folders
Windows Logo + D: Minimizes all open windows and displays the desktop
CTRL + Windows Logo + F: Find computer
CTRL + Windows Logo + TAB: Moves focus from Start, to the Quick Launch toolbar, to the system tray
Windows Logo + TAB: Cycle through taskbar buttons
Windows Logo + Break: System Properties dialog box
Windows Logo + L: Log off
WindowsWindows Logo + P: Starts Print Manager
Windows Logo + C: Opens Control Panel
Windows Logo + V: Starts Clipboard
Windows Logo + K: Opens Keyboard Properties dialog box
Windows Logo + I: Opens Mouse Properties dialog box
Windows Logo + A: Starts Accessibility Options
Windows Logo + SPACEBAR: Displays the list of Microsoft IntelliType shortcut keys
Windows Logo + S: Toggles CAPS LOCK on and off

BANNER in ur system

3.A NEW WINDOW WILL OPEN NAMED Registry Editor. IN THE LEFT PANAL OF THE Registry Editor, GO TO THE KEY: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\WindowsNT\CurrentVersion\WinLogon
5.RIGHT CLICK ON IT AND CHOOSE Rename. TYPE LegalNoticeCaption TO Rename IT.
9.NOW, CLOSE THE Registry Editor.

Login with multiple ids in yahoo messanger

Follow these steps :
* Go to Start ==> Run ==>> Type regedit,hit enter
* Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER -> Software -> Yahoo -> pager -> Test
* On the right pane ==>> right-click and choose new Dword value .
* Rename it as Plural.
* Double click and assign a decimal value of 1.
* Now close registry and restart yahoo messenger.
* For signing in with new id open another messenger .

Forgot ur Administrator Password????

you can easily change your Administrator password during a Windows XP Repair.
1. Place your Windows XP CD in your cd-rom and start your computer (it’s assumed here that your XP CD is bootable – as it should be - and that you have your bios set to boot from CD)
2. Keep your eye on the screen messages for booting to your cd Typically, it will be “Press any key to boot from cd”
3. Once you get in, the first screen will indicate that Setup is inspecting your system and loading files.
4. When you get to the Welcome to Setup screen, press ENTER to Setup Windows now
5. The Licensing Agreement comes next - Press F8 to accept it.
6. The next screen is the Setup screen which gives you the option to do a Repair.
It should read something like “If one of the following Windows XP installations is damaged, Setup can try to repair it”
Use the up and down arrow keys to select your XP installation (if you only have one, it should already be selected) and press R to begin the Repair process.
7. Let the Repair run. Setup will now check your disks and then start copying files which can take several minutes.
8. Shortly after the Copying Files stage, you will be required to reboot. (this will happen automatically – you will see a progress bar stating “Your computer will reboot in 15 seconds”
9. During the reboot, do not make the mistake of “pressing any key” to boot from the CD again! Setup will resume automatically with the standard billboard screens and you will notice Installing Windows is highlighted.
10. Keep your eye on the lower left hand side of the screen and when you see the Installing Devices progress bar, press SHIFT + F10. This is the security hole! A command console will now open up giving you the potential for wide access to your system.
11. At the prompt, type NUSRMGR.CPL and press Enter. Voila! You have just gained graphical access to your User Accounts in the Control Panel.
12. Now simply pick the account you need to change and remove or change your password as you prefer. If you want to log on without having to enter your new password, you can type control userpasswords2 at the prompt and choose to log on without being asked for password. After you’ve made your changes close the windows, exit the command box and continue on with the Repair (have your Product key handy).
13. Once the Repair is done, you will be able to log on with your new password (or without a password if you chose not to use one or if you chose not to be asked for a password). Your programs and personalized settings should remain intact

All Dos Commands

All Dos Commands

ADDUSERS Add or list users to/from a CSV file
ARP Address Resolution Protocol
ASSOC Change file extension associations
ASSOCIAT One step file association
AT Schedule a command to run at a later time
ATTRIB Change file attributes

BOOTCFG Edit Windows boot settings
BROWSTAT Get domain, browser and PDC info

CACLS Change file permissions
CALL Call one batch program from another
CD Change Directory - move to a specific Folder
CHANGE Change Terminal Server Session properties
CHKDSK Check Disk - check and repair disk problems
CHKNTFS Check the NTFS file system
CHOICE Accept keyboard input to a batch file
CIPHER Encrypt or Decrypt files/folders
CleanMgr Automated cleanup of Temp files, recycle bin
CLEARMEM Clear memory leaks
CLIP Copy STDIN to the Windows clipboard.
CLS Clear the screen
CLUSTER Windows Clustering
CMD Start a new CMD shell
COLOR Change colors of the CMD window
COMP Compare the contents of two files or sets of files
COMPACT Compress files or folders on an NTFS partition
COMPRESS Compress individual files on an NTFS partition
CON2PRT Connect or disconnect a Printer
CONVERT Convert a FAT drive to NTFS.
COPY Copy one or more files to another location
CSVDE Import or Export Active Directory data

DATE Display or set the date
Dcomcnfg DCOM Configuration Utility
DEFRAG Defragment hard drive
DEL Delete one or more files
DELPROF Delete NT user profiles
DELTREE Delete a folder and all subfolders
DevCon Device Manager Command Line Utility
DIR Display a list of files and folders
DIRUSE Display disk usage
DISKCOMP Compare the contents of two floppy disks
DISKCOPY Copy the contents of one floppy disk to another
DNSSTAT DNS Statistics
DOSKEY Edit command line, recall commands, and create macros
DSADD Add user (computer, group..) to active directory
DSQUERY List items in active directory
DSMOD Modify user (computer, group..) in active directory

ECHO Display message on screen
ENDLOCAL End localisation of environment changes in a batch file
ERASE Delete one or more files
EXIT Quit the CMD shell
EXPAND Uncompress files
EXTRACT Uncompress CAB files

FC Compare two files
FDISK Disk Format and partition
FIND Search for a text string in a file
FINDSTR Search for strings in files
FOR Conditionally perform a command several times
FORFILES Batch process multiple files
FORMAT Format a disk
FREEDISK Check free disk space (in bytes)
FSUTIL File and Volume utilities
FTP File Transfer Protocol
FTYPE Display or modify file types used in file extension associations

GLOBAL Display membership of global groups
GOTO Direct a batch program to jump to a labelled line

HELP Online Help
HFNETCHK Network Security Hotfix Checker

IF Conditionally perform a command
IFMEMBER Is the current user in an NT Workgroup

KILL Remove a program from memory

LABEL Edit a disk label
LOCAL Display membership of local groups
LOGEVENT Write text to the NT event viewer.
LOGOFF Log a user off
LOGTIME Log the date and time in a file

MAPISEND Send email from the command line
MEM Display memory usage
MD Create new folders
MODE Configure a system device
MORE Display output, one screen at a time
MOUNTVOL Manage a volume mount point
MOVE Move files from one folder to another
MOVEUSER Move a user from one domain to another
MSG Send a message
MSIEXEC Microsoft Windows Installer
MSINFO Windows NT diagnostics
MSTSC Terminal Server Connection (Remote Desktop Protocol)
MUNGE Find and Replace text within file(s)
MV Copy in-use files

NET Manage network resources
NETDOM Domain Manager
NETSH Configure network protocols
NETSVC Command-line Service Controller
NBTSTAT Display networking statistics (NetBIOS over TCP/IP)
NETSTAT Display networking statistics (TCP/IP)
NOW Display the current Date and Time
NSLOOKUP Name server lookup
NTBACKUP Backup folders to tape
NTRIGHTS Edit user account rights

PATH Display or set a search path for executable files
PATHPING Trace route plus network latency and packet loss
PAUSE Suspend processing of a batch file and display a message
PERMS Show permissions for a user
PERFMON Performance Monitor
PING Test a network connection
POPD Restore the previous value of the current directory saved by PUSHD
PORTQRY Display the status of ports and services
PRINT Print a text file
PRNCNFG Display, configure or rename a printer
PRNMNGR Add, delete, list printers set the default printer
PROMPT Change the command prompt
PsExec Execute process remotely
PsFile Show files opened remotely
PsGetSid Display the SID of a computer or a user
PsInfo List information about a system
PsKill Kill processes by name or process ID
PsList List detailed information about processes
PsLoggedOn Who's logged on (locally or via resource sharing)
PsLogList Event log records
PsPasswd Change account password
PsService View and control services
PsShutdown Shutdown or reboot a computer
PsSuspend Suspend processes
PUSHD Save and then change the current directory

QGREP Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern.

RASDIAL Manage RAS connections
RASPHONE Manage RAS connections
RECOVER Recover a damaged file from a defective disk.
REG Read, Set or Delete registry keys and values
REGEDIT Import or export registry settings
REGSVR32 Register or unregister a DLL
REGINI Change Registry Permissions
REM Record comments (remarks) in a batch file
REN Rename a file or files.
REPLACE Replace or update one file with another
RD Delete folder(s)
RDISK Create a Recovery Disk
RMTSHARE Share a folder or a printer
ROBOCOPY Robust File and Folder Copy
ROUTE Manipulate network routing tables
RUNAS Execute a program under a different user account
RUNDLL32 Run a DLL command (add/remove print connections)

SC Service Control
SCHTASKS Create or Edit Scheduled Tasks
SCLIST Display NT Services
ScriptIt Control GUI applications
SET Display, set, or remove environment variables
SETLOCAL Begin localisation of environment changes in a batch file
SETX Set environment variables permanently
SHARE List or edit a file share or print share
SHIFT Shift the position of replaceable parameters in a batch file
SHORTCUT Create a windows shortcut (.LNK file)
SHOWGRPS List the NT Workgroups a user has joined
SHOWMBRS List the Users who are members of a Workgroup
SHUTDOWN Shutdown the computer
SLEEP Wait for x seconds
SOON Schedule a command to run in the near future
SORT Sort input
START Start a separate window to run a specified program or command
SU Switch User
SUBINACL Edit file and folder Permissions, Ownership and Domain
SUBST Associate a path with a drive letter
SYSTEMINFO List system configuration

TASKLIST List running applications and services
TIME Display or set the system time
TIMEOUT Delay processing of a batch file
TITLE Set the window title for a CMD.EXE session
TOUCH Change file timestamps
TRACERT Trace route to a remote host
TREE Graphical display of folder structure
TYPE Display the contents of a text file

USRSTAT List domain usernames and last login

VER Display version information
VERIFY Verify that files have been saved
VOL Display a disk label

WHERE Locate and display files in a directory tree
WHOAMI Output the current UserName and domain
WINDIFF Compare the contents of two files or sets of files
WINMSD Windows system diagnostics
WINMSDP Windows system diagnostics II
WMIC WMI Commands

XCACLS Change file permissions
XCOPY Copy files and folders

i recommend for all dos commands visit

Hidden Sound track in Windows Xp

Windows XP has a hidden sound track which plays as background music during Windows XP installation process, but most people can’t hear this music because they have a sound card that does not have drivers preinstalled on XP .

There are 2 ways by which you can find this hidden sound track:

1.Go to start->search.Search for title.wma .But remember to include hidden files and folders in your search.

2.Navigate to C:\Windows\system32\oobe\images, go to Tools > Folder Options > View, check Show Hidden Files and Folders options and then uncheck Hide Protected Operating System Files. You will now notice a file called title.wma, that is the hidden sound track.

This screenshot will help you out.

Change Start logo in Xp ::

Change Start logo in Xp ::
I’ve read a number of articles on the internet about changing the text on the Start button in XP. On more than one occasion I’ve seen references to a five (5) letter limitation when the button is renamed. I always wondered if this was true or just an assumption someone made because the default ‘start’ just happened to fit the button size. So, I decided to run a test and see if there really was a five character limit.

First of all just u need to do is download Resource hacker.

Resource Hacker TM is a freeware utility to view, modify, rename, add, delete and extract resources in 32bit Windows executables and resource files (*.res). It incorporates an internal resource script compiler and decompiler and works on Win95, Win98, Win ME, WinNT, Win2000 and Win XP operating systems.

ll its just 541Kb in the size.. click here to go to the download Page

Download Resource Hacker

First Step

The first step is to make a backup copy of the file explorer.exe located at C:\Windows\explorer. Place it in a folder somewhere on your hard drive where it will be safe. Start Resource Hacker and open explorer.exe located at C:\Windows\explorer.exe
The category we are going to be using is String Table In Resource Hacker. Expand it by clicking the plus sign then navigate down to and expand string 37 followed by highlighting 1033. If you are using the Classic Layout rather than the XP Layout, use number 38. The right hand pane will display the string table as shown in Fig. 02. We’re going to modify item 578, currently showing the word “start” just as it displays on the current Start button.

There is no magic here. Just double click on the word “start” so that it’s highlighted, making sure the quotation marks are not part of the highlight. They need to remain in place, surrounding the new text that you’ll type. Go ahead and type your new entry


Second Step – Modify the Registry

Now that the modified explorer.exe has been created it’s necessary to modify the registry so the file will be recognized when the user logs on to the system. If you don’t know how to access the registry I’m not sure this article is for you, but just in case it’s a temporary memory lapse, go to Start (soon to be something else) Run and type Regedit in the Open: field. Navigate to:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\ SOFTWARE\ Microsoft\ Windows NT\ Current Version\ Win logon

the right pane (Fig. 05), double click the Shell entry to open the Edit String dialog box as shown in Fig. 06. In Value data: line, enter the name that was used to save the modified explorer.exe file. Click OK.

Close Registry Editor and either log off the system and log back in, or reboot the entire system if that’s your preference. If all went as planned you should see your new Start button with the revised text.

u can of course change the text of other Balloon Items , My Computer Name, Favorites and so on many more..

Locking your files in windows ::

Locking your files in windows ::

to secure ur folders u don't need any s/w in windows Xp and win 2000.Just follow the trick.

1) create a folder in any drive (here D:/)

abc --> (ur files)

2)here in "D:/" create two batch files "lock.bat", "unlock.bat". write the following code in it.

In lock.bat
ren abc abc.{0000031D-0000-0000-C000-00000000004 6}

In unlock.bat
ren abc.{0000031D-0000-0000-C000-00000000004 6} abc

4) place ur personal files inside it. And now press lock.bat in D:, now try opening it. Bingo i think u got it. To unlock click unlock.bat.

** u can change "abc" to ur folder name (say personal..).
u can other keys to rename like,


I found some trouble in some systems. This technique is not working there. So there is another way to secure folder contents.

Here use the following keys instead of given above.

{20D04FE0-3AEA-1069-A2D8-08002B30309D} - Turned to Explorer
{0DF44EAA-FF21-4412-828E-260A8728E7F1} - turned to start menu properties
{6DFD7C5C-2451-11d3-A299-00C04F8EF6AF} - Turned to Folder Options
{7007ACC7-3202-11D1-AAD2-00805FC1270E} - Turned to Network Connections
{D20EA4E1-3957-11d2-A40B-0C5020524152} - Turned to Fonts Folder
{D6277990-4C6A-11CF-8D87-00AA0060F5BF} - Turned to Schedule tasks
{E211B736-43FD-11D1-9EFB-0000F8757FCD} - Turned to Scanners & camera

{645FF040-5081-101B-9F08-00AA002F954E} - Turned to Recycle bin

{2227A280-3AEA-1069-A2DE-08002B30309D} - Turned to Printers Folder

I actually use this technique for my programming things to open specified folders. But i found it is possible to secure our personal files using this technique.

So enjoy.

Don't ask me hw to write batch files...

To Experts
Well by using this method 1 can lock files in folder, but those can be deleted. Is there any way to secure even form deleting. I am working on it but never succeeded.

How To Make A Shutdown Timer ::

How To Make A Shutdown Timer ::

********** METHOD # 1 ***************

Right click on your desktop and choose "New=>shortcuts".

In the box that says "Type the location of the shortcut",
type in "shutdown -s -t 3600" without the quotation marks and click next. Note: 3600 are the amount of seconds before your computer shuts down. So , 60secs*60mins=3600secs.

Make up a name for the shortcut and you're done.
You can change the icon by right clicking=>properities=>change icon=>browse

To make an abort key to stop the shutdown timer just create another shortcut and make
the "location of the shortcut" to " shutdown -a" without the quotes.

********* METHOD # 2 **************


Here is another trick to shutdown at a specific time, for example you wish to shutdown at 11:35am. Type this in


Type Code: at 11:35 shutdown -s

Code: shutdown -a


Put any site on desktop in windows XP ::

To start right click anywhere on your desktop and choose Properties > Desktop > Customize Desktop > Web. You should be at this window:

Click on the New button and type the address of the Web Site you would like to have as your desktop.
Click Ok
On the next window you have the option to customize the Desktop Synchronization. Click Customize, then next and select how you want it to synchronize. If your using a website that requires a password enter it now and click finish. Click Ok.
Windows will then synchronize the page to make it available for your desktop.
Make sure the Lock desktop Items box is NOT checked as you will not be able to move it around once complete. Click Ok, then Ok again on the last window.
You should now have a box on your desktop which will load your desktop website.
You can click up at the corner of the window to maximize it or you can drag it to suit it to your needs.
Now you have a fully functional web desktop. You can click on links from that to navigate, or if your using Google, you can simply enter your search directly into the box


Set Processes Priority ::
Follow this tip to increase the priority of active processes, this will result in prioritisation of processes using the CPU.


1.Go to the second tab called Processes, right click on one of the active processes, you will see the Set Priority option
2.For example, your Run your CD writer program , set the priority higher, and guess what, no crashed CD’s


Shutdown Trick ! ::

Imidiate rapid shut down window
while shutting down window. open task manager(Ctr+Alt+Del),
Select shut down tab. and press ' Ctrl ' key while select Turn Off from dis tab.
Count 5 4 3 2 1 Voila!!! U r window will rapidly shut down.


Speed Up Ur Shut down !! ::

Start Regedit.
Navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/SYSTEM/CurrentControlSet/Control.
Click on the "Control" Folder.
Select "WaitToKillServiceTimeout"
Right click on it and select Modify.
Set it a value lower than 2000 (Mine is set to 200).

and !

Like previous versions of windows, it takes long time to restart or shutdown windows xp when the "Exit Windows" sound is enabled. to solve this problem you
must disable this useless sound. click start button then go to settings -> control panel -> Sound,Speech and Audio devices -> Sounds and Audio Devices -> Sounds, then under program events and windows menu click on "Exit Windows" sub-menu and highlight from sounds you can select,choose "none" and then click apply and ok. now you can see some improvements when shutting down your system.


Hide your folders disguise them to "Recycle Bin" ::

Rename any folder with extension {645FF040-5081-101B-9F08-00AA002F954E}
if we've a folder games
press F2,
then type, "games.{645FF040-5081-101B-9F08-00AA002F954E}"
c the magic....
then 2 get to original form,
remove the extension using
"ren games.{645FF040-5081-101B-9F08-00AA002F954E} games" in dos or as a bat file

n u are done..



System information ::

system up time only for xp professional edition
It boasts how long it can stay up. Whereas previous
versions of Windows were coy about how long they went
between boots, XP is positively proud of its stamina.
Go to the Command Prompt in the Accessories menu from
the All Programs start button option, and then type
'systeminfo'. The computer will produce a lot of
useful info, including the uptime. If you want to keep
these, type 'systeminfo > info.txt'. This creates a
file called info.txt you can look at later with
Notepad. (Professional Edition only).


lock pc just by double clicking mouse ::

You can lock your XP workstation with two clicks of
the mouse. Create a new shortcut on your desktop using
a right mouse click, and enter 'rundll32.exe
user32.dll,LockWorkStation' in the location field.
Give the shortcut a name you like. That's it -- just
double click on it and your computer will be locked.
And if that's not easy enough, Windows key + L will do
the same.


Speed up your Acrobat reader almost like notepad ::

Do u get irritated when acrobat reader takes 5/10 seconds to load when you want to open a pdf document. There is a way to speed up the loading.

1. Go to the installation folder of acrobat reader
(C:\program files\adobe\acrobat\reader\.. whatever)

2. Move all the files and folders from the "plugins" directory to the "Optional" directory. (I repeat.. cut and paste the files NOT copy & paste).

Also make sure that acrobat reader is not open else it will lock the files and not allow you to move the files).

Now your acrobat reader will load very fast
and almost as good as notepad..


Remove Stored username and Passwords ::

To remove the Stored User Names and Passwords from your system, try this:
Click Start, Run and type Control keymgr.dll
Remove the entries from the list.
The other ways to access this dialog are:
Type Control Userpasswords2 in RUN box, click Advanced, Manage Passwords
From Control Panel, select your User Account, click Manage your network passwords

It Works


Remove the Username and picture from Windows XP New Start Menu ::

The User account picture can be removed by turning off the Welcome Screen. Or, by switching to Windows Classic theme. Follow the method described in this article if you want to remove the username and picture from the Start Menu, without disabling the Welcome Screen and Windows XP Theme.

For those who want to remove the user name and user account picture from Start Menu, in order to have a blank blue panel at the top, try this:
Start Windows Explorer and go to this folder:

C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Microsoft\User Account Pictures

From that folder, rename the BMP file which corresponds to your user account.
( For example, if your username is Robert, rename Robert.bmp to old_Robert.bmp )
Next, rename the following folder:

C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Microsoft\User Account Pictures\Default Pictures

to something else, say...

C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Microsoft\User Account Pictures\No_Default Pictures
To remove the user name, follow these steps

Start regedit.exe and navigate to the this key:

HKEY_CURRENT_USER \ Software \ Microsoft\ Windows \ CurrentVersion \ Policies \ Explorer
In the right-pane, set NoUserNameInStartMenu value-data to 1

Close Regedit.exe and restart Windows.

You'll end up with a blue space at the top of the Start Menu.


To get back the username and the picture, reverse the above procedure::

For the New Start Menu, Windows XP looks for the .bmp file in the folder

C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Microsoft\User Account Pictures

If the file is not found, it takes a picture from the "Default Pictures" sub-folder. By renaming the .bmp and the "Default Pictures" folder, you're giving no chance for Windows to fetch an image for the Start Menu


Notepad Trick ! for complete list move to NOTEPAD TRICKS page ::

Well quite old but here is d complete collection

Step 1: Open Notepad
Step 2: Write following line in the notepad.
this app can break
Step 3: Save this file as xxx.txt
Step 4: Close the notepad.
Step 5: Open the file again.



1> Open Notepad
2> Enter four words separated by spaces, wherein the first word has 4 letters, the next two have three letters, and the last word has five letters
3> DON'T hit enter at the end of the line.
4> Save the file.
5> Close Notepad.
6> Reopen Notepad.
7> Open the file you just saved.


Open a note pad
type Bush hid the facts
save that file,
close it
again open and see...


NOTEPAD "world trade centre trick".. ::

Did you know that the flight number of the plane that had hit WTC ...on
9/11 was Q33N ....Open your Notepad in ur computer and type the flight
number i.e Q33N... Increase the Font Size to 72, Change the Font to
Wingdings. U will be amazed by the findings.


log trick !! make your Notepad a diary ::

Sometimes we want to insert current data and time, whenever we open the file in the notepad. If you are a lazy person like me, who don’t like to press F5 whenever you open a notepad. Then here is a trick to avoid this. Just add a .LOG in the first line of your text file and close it.
Whenever you open the file with that text in the first line in the notepad, it will insert the current date and time at the end of the file. You can start entering your text after that.


The reason this happens:

In notepad, any other 4-3-3-5 letter word combo will have the same results.
It is all to do with a limitation in Windows. Text files containing Unicode UTF-16-encoded Unicode are supposed to start with a "Byte-Order Mark" (BOM), which is a two-byte flag that tells a reader how the following UTF-16 data is encoded.

1) You are saving to 8-bit Extended ASCII (Look at the Save As / Encoding format)
2) You are reading from 16-bit UNICODE (You guessed it, look at the Save As / Encoding format)
This is why the 18 8-bit characters are being displayed as 9 (obviously not supported by your codepage) 16-bit UNICODE characters


Speed up menu Display ::

When using the start menu the you will notice a delay between different tiers of the menu hierarchy. For the fastest computer experience possible I recommend changing this value to zero. This will allow the different tiers to appear instantly.

Start Regedit. If you are unfamiliar with regedit please refer to our FAQ on how to get started.

Navigate to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop
Select MenuShowDelay from the list on the right.

Right on it and select Modify.
Change the value to 0.
Reboot your computer.


Clicking* .avi files on explorer causing 100% CPU usage ::

Well windows seem to have a REALLY big problem when it comes to reading AVI files. It seems that when you click on an AVI file in explorer, it'll try to read the entire AVI file to determine the width,height, etc. of the AVI file (this is displayed in the Properties window). Now the problem with Windows is that if you have a broken/not fully downloaded AVI file that doesnt contain this info, Windows will scan the entire AVI file trying to figure out all these properties which in the process will probably cause 100% CPU usage and heavy memory usage. To solve this problem all you have to do is the following:
1. Open up regedit
2. Goto HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\SystemFileAssociations\.avi\shellex\PropertyHandler
3. Delete the "Default" value which should be "{87D62D94-71B3-4b9a-9489-5FE6850DC73E}"
Voila! Please not that this will no longer provide you with the windows properties displaying the AVI file information such as width, height, bitrate etc. But its a small price to pay for saving you resources.
NOTE: Please use caution when using regedit. Improper usage may cause windows to behave imcorrectly. Also, I cannot be held resposible. Backup your registry first.



And the AutoPlay Tab has disappeared in My Computer, Devices With Removable Storage, Right Click on CDROM, Properties.
Solution: The service: "Shell Hardware Detection" has been set to Manual or Disabled. Go to Control Panel, Administrative Tools, Services. Return this service to "Automatic".


How to make your Desktop Icons Transparent ::

Go to Control Panel > System, > Advanced > Performance area > Settings button Visual Effects tab "Use drop shadows for icon labels on the Desktop"


Display Message on startup ::

Start regedit, if you are unfamiliar with regedit please see our FAQ.
Navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon
Modify the key legalnoticecaption with what you want to name the window.
Modify the key legalnoticetext with what you want the window to say. Restart


Auto Delete temporary folder ::

ll what i prefer is %temp% " without quotes.. at Start -> Run..
this opens your temp folder n den u cal erase it neatly// still try this one too..

First go into gpedit.msc
Next select -> Computer Configuration/Administrative Templates/Windows Components/Terminal Services/Temporary Folder
Then right click "Do Not Delete Temp Folder Upon Exit"
Go to properties and hit disable. Now next time Windows puts a temp file in that folder it will automatically delete it when its done! Note from Forum Admin: Remember, GPEDIT (Group Policy Editor) is only available in XP Pro.


Make your PDF files to speak::

make your PDF files to speak
here r the shortcuts for hearing PDF files in adobe reader 6.0 or higher

ctrl + shift + b ---->to hear the whole topic
ctrl +shift + v ---->to hear the page

.....................TRY ALL THESE TIPS AND PLZ...POST ME REPLY IF U LIKED THEM.............